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看西片必讀-西方的爵位架構詳解

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看西片必讀-西方的爵位架構詳解

Postby admin » Mon Feb 02, 2015 3:57 pm

Traditional rank amongst European royalty, peers, and nobility is rooted in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Although they vary over time and between geographic regions (for example, one region's prince might be equal to another's grand duke), the following is a reasonably comprehensive list that provides information on both general ranks and specific differences.

Ranks and titles[edit]
Sovereign[edit]
Main articles: Monarch and Sovereign
The word monarch is derived from the Greek μονάρχης, monárkhēs, "sole ruler" (from μόνος, mónos, "single" or "sole", and ἄρχων, árkhōn, archon, "leader", "ruler", "chief", the word being the present participle of the verb ἄρχειν, árkhein, "to rule", "to lead", this from the noun ὰρχή, arkhē, "beginning", "authority", "principle") through the Latinized form monarcha.
The word sovereign is derived from the vulgar Latin superanus "chief, principal," from the Latin super "over".
Autocrat is derived from the Greek αὐτοκράτωρ: αὐτός ("self") and κρατείν ("to hold power"), and may be translated as "one who rules by himself".
Common titles for European and Near Eastern monarchs
Note that many titles listed may also be used by lesser nobles – non-sovereigns – depending on the historical period and state. The sovereign titles listed below are grouped together into categories roughly according to their degree of dignity; these being: imperial, high royal, royal, others (princely, ducal, more), and religious.

Imperial titles

Emperor, from the Latin Imperator, meaning "commander" or "one who commands". In English, the feminine form is Empress (the Latin is imperatrix). The realm of an emperor or empress is termed an Empire. Other words meaning Emperor include:
Caesar, the appellation of Roman emperors derived from the Roman dictator Julius Caesar, whose great-nephew and adopted son Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus became the first emperor of Rome. Augustus' four successors were each made the adoptive son of his predecessor, and were therefore legally entitled to use "Caesar" as a constituent of their names; after Nero, however, the familial link of the Julio-Claudian dynasty was disrupted and use of the word Caesar continued as a title only.
Tsar / Czar / Csar / Tzar, derived from Caesar, primarily used in Bulgarian, and after that in Russia and other Slavic countries.
Kaiser, derived from Caesar, primarily used in Germanic countries.
Basileus, from Mycenaean Greek meaning "chieftain", later used for the Roman emperors of the Byzantine period.
Samraat (Sanskrit: samrāṭ or सम्राज् samrāj) is an Ancient Indian title sometimes translated into modern English as "Emperor". The feminine form is Samrãjñī.
High royal titles

King of Kings mostly used in Christian contexts to denote Jesus Christ or the Christian Roman emperors of the Late Empire and Byzantine periods.
Shahanshah, literally "King of Kings" a corruption of the Middle Persian šāhān šāh, meaning "King's King." Used in Persia and surrounding countries.
Taewang, literally "Supreme King", a Korean title for the rulers of the Goguryeo Empire and later dynasties such as the Kingdom of Joseon.
Nəgusä Nägäst, title of the Emperors of Ethiopia, meaning "King of Kings".
Mepe-Mepeta, Georgian for "King of Kings."
Khagan, derived from Khan of Khans, meaning king of kings in the Mongol Empire and the Ottoman Empire.
High King, A king who rules over lesser kings.
Mahārāja, Sanskrit for a "great king" or "high king".
Padishah, Persian pād "master" and shāh "king". Used in the Ottoman Empire.
Anax, from Mycenaean wanax for "High King". Outranked Basileus in Mycenaean usage.
Nam-Lugal High kings of ancient Sumer (Mesopotamia).
Pharaoh, "Man of the Great House (Palace)" used in Ancient Egypt to denote the High kings of the upper and lower kingdoms of the Nile river valley.
Ard Rí, Gaelic for high king, most notably used for high kings of Ireland and high kings of Scotland.
Bretwalda, high kings of Anglo-Saxon England.
Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the official title of the Malaysian head of state, and means "He who is Made Supreme Lord" and is generally glossed in English as "king". The officeholder is elected from among the heads of the nine royal states, so the office may also be analogous to that of a high king.
Royal titles

King, from the Germanic *kuningaz, roughly meaning "son of the people." (See: Germanic kingship) [1] The realm of a King is termed a Kingdom (sovereign kings are ranked above vassal kings)
Rex Latin for "ruler". Cognate with Raja, Rí, Reign, Regina, etc.
Raja, Indian for "ruler and King.". Cognate with Latin Rex, Gaelic Rí, etc.
Deshmukh, Indian for "ruler and king."
Rí, Gaelic title meaning king, of which there were several grades, the highest being Ard Rí (High king). Cognate with Indian Raja, Latin Rex, and ancient Gaulish rix.
Khan, from the Turco-Mongol word for "lord," like Duke it was originally a military rank. A Khan's realm is called a Khanate.
Lamane, "master of the land" or "chief owner of the soil" in old Serer language were the ancient hereditary kings and landed gentry of the Serer people found in Senegal, the Gambia and Mauritania. The The Lamanes were guardians of Serer religion and many of them have been canonized as Holy Saints (Pangool).
Oba, the Yoruba word for King or Ruler of a kingdom or city-state. It is used across all the traditional Yoruba lands, as well as by the Edo, throughout Nigeria, Benin, and Togo.
Shah, Persian word for King, from Indo-European for "he who rules"
Sultan, from Arabic and originally referring to one who had "power", more recently used as synonym for King.
Malik, Arabic for King.
Tlatoani, Ruler of the atlepetl or city state in ancient Mexico. Title of the Aztec Emperors. The word literally means "speaker" in Nahuatl, but may be translated into English as "king".
Ajaw, In Maya meaning "lord", "ruler", "king" or "leader". Was the title of the ruler in the Classic Maya polity. A variant being the title of K'inich Ajaw or "Great Sun King" as it was used to refer to the founder of the Copán dynasty, K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo'.
Lakan, Filipino title (mostly on the island of Luzon) which, together with the term Datu in the Visayas and Mindanao, is an equivalent of Raja and thus glossed as "king" or "sovereign prince".
Tuanku, literally "My Lord", the title of the kings of the nine Royal states of Malaysia; all princes and princesses of the Royal Families also receive the appellation Tengku,
Maad a Sinig, King of Sine, a pre-colonial kingdom of the Serer people. From the old Serer title "Maad" (king).
Maad Saloum, King of Saloum, a pre-colonial kingdom of the Serer people.
Ratu, A Fijian chiefly title that is also found in Javanese culture.
Teigne, King of Baol, previously a pre-colonial Serer kingdom.
Queen, from the Germanic *kwoeniz, or *kwenon, "wife"; cognate of Greek γυνή, gynē, "woman"; from PIE *gʷḗn, "woman". The female equivalent of a King, or the consort of a King; a Queen's realm is also a kingdom.
Rani, Indian for Queen. See Raja, above.
Shahbanu, Persian for Empress. See Shah, above.
Sultana, Arabic for Queen. See Sultan, above.
Malika, Arabic for Queen.
Ix-ajaw, See Ajaw above, it was a title was also given to women, though generally prefixed with the sign Ix ("woman") to indicate their gender.
Diyan, Filipino feminine equivalent of "Datu". See Datu
Hara, Filipino feminine equivalent of "Raha". See Raja, above.
Princely, ducal, and other sovereign titles

Prince, from the Latin princeps, meaning "first citizen". The feminine form is Princess. Variant forms include the German Fürst and Russian Knyaz.
Bai, Filipino feminine equivalent of a prince.
Ginoo, Ancient Filipino equivalent to noble man or prince (now used in the form "Ginoóng" as the analogue to "mister").
Morza, a Tartar title usually translated as "prince", it ranked below a Khan. The title was borrowed from Persian and Indian appellation Mirza added to the names of certain nobles, which itself derived from Emir.
Knyaz, a title found in most Slavic languages, denoting a ruling or noble rank. It is usually translated into English as "prince".
Despot, Greek for "lord, master", initially an appellation for the Byzantine emperor, later the senior court title, awarded to sons and close relatives of the emperor. In the 13th-15th centuries borne by autonomous and independent rulers in the Balkans.
Duke, from the Latin Dux, meaning "leader," a military rank in the late Roman Empire. Variant forms include Doge, and Duce; it has also been modified into Archduke (meaning "chief" Duke), Grand Duke (literally "large," or "big" Duke), Vice Duke ("deputy" Duke), etc. The female equivalent is Duchess
Emir, often rendered Amir in older English usage; from the Arabic "to command." The female form is Emira (Amirah). Emir is the root of the English military rank "Admiral"
Bey, or Beg/Baig, Turkish for "Chieftain."
Buumi, first in line to the throne in Serer pre-colonial kingdoms.
Thilas, second in line to the throne in Serer pre-colonial kingdoms.
Loul, third in line to the throne in Serer country.
Religious titles

Pope, derived from Latin and Italian papa, the familiar form of "father" (also "Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church and Vicar of Christ"); once wielding substantial secular power as the ruler of the Papal States and leader of Christendom, the Pope is also the absolute ruler of the sovereign state Vatican City
Caliph, was the ruler of the caliphate, an Islamic title indicating the successor to Muhammad. Both a religious and a secular leader; the Ottoman sultans continued to use Caliph as another of their titles. However, in later Ottoman times the religious function was practically exercised by the Sheikh ül-Islam; after the establishment of the Turkish Republic, a solely religious Caliphate, held by members of the Sultans' family, was established for a short period of time.
Saltigue, the high priests and priestesses of the Serer people. They are the diviners in Serer religion.
Other sovereigns, royals, peerage, and major nobility[edit]
Main articles: Royal family, Peerage, Nobility and Imperial immediacy
Several ranks were widely used (for more than a thousand years in Europe alone) for both sovereign rulers and non-sovereigns. Additional knowledge about the territory and historic period is required to know whether the rank holder was a sovereign or non-sovereign. However, joint precedence among rank holders often greatly depended on whether a rank holder was sovereign, whether of the same rank or not. This situation was most widely exemplified by the Holy Roman Empire (HRE) in Europe. Almost all of the following ranks were commonly both sovereign and non-sovereign within the HRE. Outside of the HRE, the most common sovereign rank of these below was that of Prince. Within the HRE, those holding the following ranks who were also sovereigns had (enjoyed) what was known as an immediate relationship with the Emperor. Those holding non-sovereign ranks held only a mediate relationship (meaning that the civil hierarchy upwards was mediated by one or more intermediaries between the rank holder and the Emperor).

Titles
Archduke, ruler of an archduchy; used by the rulers of Austria; it was also used by the Habsburgs and Habsburg-Lorraines of the Holy Roman Empire, Austrian Empire, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire for imperial family members of the dynasty, each retaining it as a subsidiary title when founding sovereign cadet branches by acquiring thrones under different titles (e.g., Tuscany, Modena); it was also used for those ruling some Habsburg territories such as those that became the modern BeNeLux (Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg) nations
Grand Prince, ruler of a grand principality; a title primarily used in the medieval Russian principalities; it was also used by the Romanovs of the Russian Empire for members of the imperial family, although more commonly translated into English as Grand Duke
Duke, ruler[1] of a duchy,[2] also for junior members of ducal and some grand ducal families
Prince, Prinz in German; junior members of a royal, grand ducal, ruling ducal or princely, or mediatised family. The title of Fürst was usually reserved, from the 19th century, for rulers of principalities—the smallest sovereign entities (e.g., Liechtenstein, Lippe, Schwarzburg, Waldeck-and-Pyrmont) -- and for heads of high-ranking, noble but non-ruling families (Bismarck, Clary und Aldringen, Dietrichstein, Henckel von Donnersmarck, Kinsky, Paar, Pless, Thun und Hohenstein, etc.). Cadets of these latter families were generally not allowed to use Prinz, being accorded only the style of count (Graf) or, occasionally, that of Fürst (Wrede, Palffy d'Erdod) even though it was also a ruling title. Exceptional use of Prinz was permitted for some morganatic families (e.g., Battenberg, Montenuovo) and a few others (Carolath-Beuthen, Biron von Kurland).
In particular Crown prince, Kronprinz in German, was reserved for the heir apparent of an emperor or king
Dauphin, title of the crown prince of the royal family of France
Infante, title of the cadet members of the royal families of Portugal and Spain
Elector, Kurfürst in German, a rank for those who voted for the Holy Roman Emperor, usually sovereign of a state (e.g. the Margrave of Brandenburg, an elector, called the Elector of Brandenburg)
Marquess, Margrave, or Marquis was the ruler of a marquessate, margraviate, or march
Landgrave, a German title, ruler of a landgraviate
Count, theoretically the ruler of a county; known as an Earl in modern Britain; known as a Serdar in Montenegro and Serbia
Viscount (vice-count), theoretically the ruler of a viscounty or viscountcy
Freiherr, holder of an allodial barony. Freiherr coming from the German "Free-Man"[citation needed]
Baron, theoretically the ruler of a barony – some barons in some countries may have been "free barons" (liber baro) and as such, regarded (themselves) as higher barons.
Regarding the titles of duke and prince: in Germany, a sovereign duke (Herzog) outranks a sovereign prince (Fürst). A cadet prince (Prinz) who belongs to an imperial or royal dynasty, however, may outrank a duke who is the cadet of a reigning house e.g. Wurttemberg, Bavaria, Mecklenburg or Oldenburg. The children of a ruling grand duke might be titled duke (Mecklenburg, Oldenburg) or prince (Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt, Saxe-Weimar) in accordance with the customs of the dynasty.

Children of ruling dukes and of ruling princes (Fürst) were, however, all titled prince (Prinz). The heir apparent to a ruling or mediatised title would usually prepend the prefix Erb- (hereditary) to his or her title, e.g. Erbherzog, Erbprinz, Erbgraf, to distinguish their status from that of their junior siblings. Children of a mediatised Fürst were either Prinzen or Grafen, depending upon whether the princely title was limited to descent by masculine primogeniture or not. In the German non-sovereign nobility, a duke (Herzog) still ranked higher than a prince (Fürst).

Minor nobility, gentry, and other aristocracy[edit]
Main articles: Aristocracy (class) and Gentry
The distinction between the ranks of the major nobility (listed above) and the minor nobility, listed here, was not always a sharp one in all nations. But the precedence of the ranks of a Baronet or a Knight is quite generally accepted for where this distinction exists for most nations. Here the rank of Baronet (ranking above a Knight) is taken as the highest rank among the ranks of the minor nobility or gentry that are listed below.

Titles
Baronet is a hereditary title ranking below Baron but above Knight; this title is granted only in the British Isles and does not confer nobility.
Dominus was the Latin title of the feudal, superior and mesne, lords, and also an ecclesiastical and academical title (equivalent of Lord)
Vidame, a minor French aristocrat
Vavasour, also a petty French feudal lord
Seigneur or Knight of the Manor rules a smaller local fief
Knight is the basic rank of the aristocratic system
Patrician is a dignity of minor nobility or gentry (most often being hereditary) usually ranking below Knight but above Esquire
Fidalgo or Hidalgo is a minor Portuguese and Spanish aristocrat (respectively; from filho d'algo, lit. son of wealth, mediaeval Galician-Portuguese "algo" = wealth, riches, fortune, nowadays "algo" = something)
Nobile (aristocracy) is an Italian title of nobility for prestigious families that never received a title
Principalía the aristocratic class of Filipino nobles, through whom the Spanish Monarchs ruled the Philippines during the colonial period (c. 1600s to 1898).
Edler is a minor aristocrat in Germany and Austria during those countries' respective imperial periods.
Jonkheer is an honorific for members of noble Dutch families that never received a title; An untitled noblewoman is styled Jonkvrouw, though the wife of a Jonkheer is a Mevrouw or, sometimes, Freule, which could also be used by daughters of the same
Skartabel is a minor Polish aristocrat.
Scottish Baron is a hereditary feudal nobility dignity, outside the Scots peerage, recognised by Lord Lyon as a member of the Scots noblesse and ranking below a Knight but above a Scottish Laird[3][4] in the British system. However, Scottish Barons on the European continent are considered and treated equal to European barons.
Laird is a Scottish hereditary feudal dignity ranking below a Scottish Baron but above an Esquire
Esquire is a rank of gentry originally derived from Squire and indicating the status of an attendant to a knight or an apprentice knight; it ranks below Knight (or in Scotland below Laird) but above Gentleman[5][6]
Gentleman is the basic rank of gentry, historically primarily associated with land or manorial lords; within British Commonwealth nations it is also roughly equivalent to some minor nobility of some continental European nations[7]
In Germany, the constitution of the Weimar Republic in 1919 ceased to accord privileges to members of dynastic and noble families. Their titles henceforth became legal parts of the family name, and traditional forms of address (e.g., "Hoheit" or "Durchlaucht") ceased to be accorded to them by governmental entities. The last title was conferred on 12 November 1918 to Kurt von Klefeld. The actual rank of a title-holder in Germany depended not only on the nominal rank of the title, but also the degree of sovereignty exercised, the rank of the title-holder's suzerain, and the length of time the family possessed its status within the nobility (Uradel, Briefadel, altfürstliche, neufürstliche, see: German nobility). Thus, any reigning sovereign ranks higher than any deposed or mediatized sovereign (e.g., the Fürst of Waldeck, sovereign until 1918, was higher than the Duke of Arenberg, head of a mediatized family, although Herzog is nominally a higher title than Fürst). However, former holders of higher titles in extant monarchies retained their relative rank, i.e., a queen dowager of Belgium outranks the reigning Prince of Liechtenstein. Members of a formerly sovereign or mediatized house rank higher than the nobility. Among the nobility, those whose titles derive from the Holy Roman Empire rank higher than the holder of an equivalent title granted by one of the German monarchs after 1806.

In Austria, nobility titles may no longer be used since 1918.[8]

In Switzerland, nobility titles are prohibited and are not recognized as part of the family name.
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