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Feline Vaccination Guidelines

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Feline Vaccination Guidelines

Postby admin » Sat Aug 29, 2015 6:20 pm

http://www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/vmth/smal ... tocols.cfm
In general, guidelines for vaccination of cats have been strongly influenced by the appearance of vaccine-associated sarcomas in cats, and in particular their epidemiologic association with feline leukemia virus vaccines and killed rabies virus vaccines. Thus, there is clear evidence for minimizing frequency of vaccination in cats. The recommendations below have been made in light of the AVMA/AAHA/AAFP/VCS task force recommendations on vaccine-associated sarcomas in cats. Risk factors for sarcomas should be discussed with cat owners at the time of examination. If a cat develops a palpable granuloma at the site of previous vaccination, the benefits vs risks of future vaccinations should be carefully considered. All vaccine-associated sarcomas should be reported to the vaccine manufacturer.

Feline Core Vaccines

The definitions of core and non-core vaccines described in the canine vaccination guidelines above also apply to the feline vaccines. The core feline vaccines are those for feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV1), feline calicivirus (FCV), feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and rabies.

Feline Herpesvirus 1, Feline Calicivirus and Feline Panleukopenia Virus Vaccines

For initial kitten vaccination (£ 16 weeks), one dose of parenteral vaccine containing modified live virus (MLV) FHV1, FCV, and FPV is recommended every 3-4 weeks from 6-8 weeks of age, with the final booster being given no sooner than 16 weeks of age. For cats older than 16 weeks of age, two doses of vaccine containing modified live virus (MLV) FHV1, FCV, and FPV given 3-4 weeks apart are recommended. After a booster at one year, revaccination is suggested every 3 years thereafter for cats at low risk of exposure. According to recommendations of the vaccine-associated sarcoma task force, these vaccines are administered over the right shoulder. Note that recommendations for killed and intranasal FHV1 and FCV vaccines are different from the above. Killed and intranasal varieties of these vaccines are not routinely used at the VMTH. The use of FPV MLV vaccines should be avoided in pregnant queens and kittens less than one month of age.

Feline Rabies Virus Vaccines

Cats are important in the epidemiology of rabies in the US. In general we recommend that kittens receive a single dose of killed or recombinant rabies vaccine at 12-16 weeks of age. Adult cats with unknown vaccination history should also receive a single dose of killed or recombinant rabies vaccine. For the recombinant vaccines, boosters are recommended at yearly intervals. We currently stock and suggest the use of the recombinant rabies vaccine, because there is some evidence that it is associated with a decreased risk of sarcoma formation (Srivastav et al, 2012). For the killed rabies vaccines, a booster is required at one year, and thereafter, rabies vaccination should be performed every 3 years using a vaccine approved for 3-year administration. According to recommendations of the vaccine-associated sarcoma task force, rabies vaccines are administered subcutaneously as distally as possible in the right rear limb.

Feline Non-Core Vaccines

Optional or non-core vaccines for cats consist of the vaccines for feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus, virulent FCV, Chlamydia felis, and Bordetella bronchiseptica.

Feline Leukemia Virus Vaccine

A number of FeLV vaccines are available on the market. The whole inactivated viral vaccines have recently been shown to be highly efficacious based on the results of molecular detection methods for FeLV, even producing sterilizing immunity, although this was not found to be the case for a inactivated mixed subunit vaccine (Torres et al, 2009). We recommend vaccination of FeLV-negative cats allowed to go outdoors or cats having direct contact with other cats of unknown FeLV status. Vaccination is most likely to be useful in kittens and young adult cats, because acquired resistance to infection develops beyond 16 weeks of age. As of 2006, the AAFP recommends primary vaccination of all kittens for FeLV, but the decision to administer booster vaccines is based on risk assessment. Vaccination is not recommended for FeLV-positive cats and indoor cats with no likelihood of exposure to FeLV.

Because of concerns relating to sarcoma formation following administration of killed, adjuvanted vaccines, we suggest the use of the recombinant FeLV vaccine, as there is some evidence that recombinant vaccines are associated with a decreased risk of sarcoma formation (Srivastav et al, 2012). Because we have experienced problems that relate to injection site pain with the parenteral recombinant FeLV vaccine, we are currently using an inactivated FeLV vaccine that has demonstrated efficacy using molecular studies (Torres et al, 2009).

Initially, two doses of FeLV vaccine are given at 2-4 week intervals, after which annual boosters (recombinant vaccine) or 3-yearly boosters (inactivated vaccine) are recommended depending on risk. According to recommendations of the vaccine-associated sarcoma task force, parenteral FeLV vaccines are administered subcutaneously as distally as possible in the left rear limb.

Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Vaccine

The FIV vaccine is an inactivated, adjuvented dual subtype vaccine that was released in July 2002. Unfortunately, vaccination of FIV-negative cats renders currently available serologic tests (ELISA and Western blot) positive for at least a year following vaccination, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based tests do not reliably identify cats with natural infection. Previous vaccination does not prevent infection, and the significance of a positive test result in a vaccinated cat cannot be assessed. Questions remain regarding the vaccine’s ability to protect against all of the FIV subtypes and strains to which cats might be exposed. Therefore, the decision regarding whether to use this vaccine is not straightforward, and the risks and benefits of the use of this vaccine should be carefully discussed with owners prior to using the vaccine in cats at risk of exposure. The UC Davis VMTH pharmacy does not stock this vaccine, and its routine use in indoor cats is not recommended.

Virulent Calicivirus Vaccine

The virulent FCV vaccine (Calicivax) is a killed, adjuvanted vaccine containing just one of many different strains of hypervirulent FCV known to cause severe systemic disease, including facial or limb edema, cutaneous ulceration, hepatocellular dysfunction, and high mortality. The disease is relatively rare, but has often involved otherwise healthy, adult cats that have been vaccinated with core vaccines containing FCV. In general, outbreaks have been self-limiting with no spread to the wider cat community. Although the virulent FCV vaccine has protected against challenge with the same FCV strain present in the vaccine, no field studies have yet been performed to determine whether it protects against other virulent strains. Given that the degree of serologic cross-reactivity between these strains is low, cross-protection does not seem very likely. Currently we do not recommend or stock this vaccine because 1) it is an adjuvanted vaccine that may increase risk of sarcoma formation; 2) the disease is rare and spread tends to be self-limiting; and 3) the degree of cross-protection between the strain included in the vaccine and other virulent FCV strains is unknown. For more information on this disease, the reader is referred to the Center for Companion Animal Health's Shelter Medicine document.

Feline Chlamydia felis Vaccine

Chlamydia felis causes conjunctivitis in cats that generally responds readily to antimicrobial treatment. Immunity induced by vaccination is probably of short duration and the vaccine provides only incomplete protection. The use of this vaccine could be considered for cats entering a population of cats where infection is known to be endemic. However, the vaccine has been associated with adverse reactions in 3% of vaccinated cats, and we do not recommend routine vaccination of low-risk cats with this vaccine. The C. felis vaccine is therefore not stocked by the VMTH pharmacy.

Feline Bordetella bronchiseptica Vaccine

This is a modified live intranasal vaccine. Bordetella bronchiseptica is primarily a problem of very young kittens, where it can cause severe lower respiratory tract disease. It appears to be uncommon in adult cats and pet cats in general. For these reasons, the UC Davis VMTH does not recommend routine vaccination of pet cats for Bordetella bronchiseptica. The vaccine could be considered for young cats at high risk of exposure in large, multiple cat environments. The UC Davis VMTH pharmacy does not stock this vaccine.

Other Feline Vaccines
The feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) vaccine has been listed as ‘Not Generally Recommended’ by the AAFP.

Feline Infectious Peritonitis Vaccine

The FIP vaccine is an intranasal modified live virus product. The efficacy of this vaccine is controversial, and duration of immunity may be short, although the vaccine appears to be safe. Although exposure to feline coronaviruses in cat populations is high, the incidence of FIP is very low, especially in single-cat households (where it is 1 in 5000). Most cats in cattery situations where FIP is a problem become infected with coronaviruses prior to 16 weeks of age, which is the age at which vaccination is first recommended. Vaccination could be considered for seronegative cats entering a cattery where FIP is common. We do not routinely recommend vaccinating household cats with the FIP vaccine, and the vaccine is not stocked by our pharmacy.

REFERENCES AND RESOURCES/SUGGESTED FURTHER READING
Day MJ, Horzinek MC, Schultz RD. 2007. Guidelines for the Vaccination of Dogs and Cats. Compiled by the Vaccination Guidelines Group of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association. J Small Anim Pract. 48(9): 528-541

Elston T and Rodan I. 1998. Feline Vaccination Guidelines. Compend Contin Educ Small Anim Practit. 20(8):936-941

Klingborg DJ, Hustead DR, Curry-Galvin EA et al 2002. AVMA Council on Biologic and Therapeutic Agents' report on cat and dog vaccines. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 221(10):1401-1407

Klingborg DJ, Hustead DR, Curry-Galvin EA et al 2001. AVMA's Principles of Vaccination. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 219: 575-576 (also http://www.avma.org/policies/vaccination.htm )

Paul MA, Appel M, Barrett R et al. 2003. Report of the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) Canine Vaccine Task Force: Executive Summary and 2003 Canine Vaccine Guidelines and Recommendations. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 39(2):119-131 (also http://www.aahanet.org via the AVMA Login (green))

Srivastav A, Kass PH, McGill LD, et al. Comparative vaccine-specific and other injectable-specific risks of injection-site sarcomas in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012;241:595-602.

Torres AN, O’Halloran KP, Larson LJ, et al. 2009. Feline leukemia virus immunity induced by whole inactivated vaccination. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. Epub ahead of print. Doi:10.1016/j.vetimm.2009.10.017

The 2006 American Association of Feline Practitioners Feline Vaccine Advisory Panel Report. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 229: 1405-1441 (also http://www.aafponline.org/resources/pra ... elines.htm)

American Association of Feline Practitioners: 2000 Feline Vaccination Guidelines. http://www.aafponline.org/about/guidelines_vaccine.pdf

1998 Report of the American Association of Feline Practitioners and Academy of Feline Medicine Advisory Panel on Feline Vaccines. 1998. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 212:227-241

What You Should Know About Vaccination: a client brochure that emphasizes the importance of vaccines while explaining the factors veterinarians consider when making customized vaccine recommendations.

You will need to search the AVMA site to find the brochures. https://www.avma.org/Pages/home.aspx

Wilson S, Greenslade J, Saunders G, et al. Difficulties in demonstrating long term immunity in FeLV vaccinated cats due to increasing age-related resistance to infection. BMC Vet Res 2012;8:125.

Wallis DM and Wallis JL. 2005. Rattlesnake Vaccine to Prevent Envenomation Toxicity in Dogs. Proceedings of the 77th

Annual Western Veterinary Conference, Las Vegas, NV.
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